Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) Notes – Project Integration Management (Chapter 4)

Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) Guide 4th Edition
Chapter 4 – Project Integration Management

Core Definitions

  • Project Integration Management (PIM) – Includes the processes and activities needed to identify, define, combine, unify, and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the Project Management Process Groups. PIM is utilized in situations where individual processes interact.
  • Project Charter – The project charter formally authorizes a project or a phase, documents initial requirements that satisfy the stakeholders’ needs and expectations, establishes a partnership between the performing organization and the requesting organization (or customer), and links the project to the strategy and ongoing work of the organization.
  • Statement of Work (SOW) – A narrative description of products or services to be delivered by the project.
  • Business Case (or similar document) – Provides the necessary information from a business standpoint to determine whether or not the project is worth the required investment.
  • Project Management Plan – The Project Management Plan, which may include one or more subsidiary plans, defines how the project is executed, monitored and controlled, and closed, and baselines schedule, scope, etc.
  • Change Requests – Documented requests which may modify project policies or procedures, project scope, project cost or budget, project schedule, or project quality as a result of issues found while project work is being performed.
  • Monitoring – Includes collecting, measuring, and distributing performance information, and assessing measurements and trends to effect process improvements. Continuous monitoring gives the project management team insight into the health of the project, and identifies any areas that may require special attention.
  • Control – Includes determining corrective or preventive actions or replanning and following up on action plans to determine if the actions taken resolved the performance issue.
  • Integrated Change Control – The process of reviewing all change requests, approving changes and managing changes to the deliverables, organizational process assets, project documents and the project management plan.

General Notes

  • (4.0) Project Integration Management (PIM) Processes:
    • Develop Project Charter
    • Develop Project Management Plan
    • Direct and Manage Project Execution
    • Monitor and Control Project Work
    • Perform Integrated Change Control
    • Close Project or Phase
  • (4.1) Projects are authorized by someone external to the project such as a sponsor, PMO, or portfolio steering committee. The project initiator or sponsor should be at a level that is appropriate to funding the project.
  • (4.3) The Direct and Manage Project Execution process includes creating project deliverables, staffing/training/managing project team members, establishing/managing project communications channels (internal and external to project team), documenting of corrective actions, preventive actions, and defect repairs, and much more.
  • (4.5) Changes may be requested by any stakeholder involved with the project, should always be recorded in written form and entered into the change/configuration management system, and may require information on estimated time and/or cost impacts.
  • (4.6) Closing a project may include actions/activities necessary to: a) satisfy completion or exit criteria for the phase or project; b) transfer the project’s products, services, or results to the next phase, production, and/or operations; and c) collect project or phase records, audit process success or failure, gather lessons learned and archive project information for future use by the organization.

The Future of Analytics and Operations Research (WINFORMS Panel Discussion)

Program/Title: The Future of Analytics and Operations Research
Organization: Washington, DC Chapter of the Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (WINFORMS)
Date/Time: Tue February 21, 2012 1800-2030 EST
Description: The exponential explosion in the amount of data available has spawned a new field: “analytics.” This recent arriviste is forcing the operations research (OR) community to reconsider how we work, with both clear benefits and risks – not only in areas like data integrity, but the very foundations of statistical problem-solving. How do we define analytics, and how does analytics relate to OR? What is the future of analytics? We’ll ask these provocative questions and others to three of our best OR intellectuals in the Washington DC area.

General Notes / Topics of Discussion

  • The difference between having an “outcomes focus” versus a “process focus”
  • Scope of similar disciplines – analytics and operations research – are they competing or allied?
  • Communication to decision makers critical – how are these skills being developed in both disciplines?
  • Philosophy of science / having the “soft skills” – is this taught, learned, or experienced?
  • When to shy away from problems – lack of customer support, intended answer, etc.
  • The difference between problems and messes… which is worse?
  • Defining constraints/limitations and discussing assumptions (e.g. acceptable solutions under certain budget constraints)
  • The importance of defining (and redefining) the problem. Critical in today’s business climate.
  • Ideal skills: Hacker skills, subject matter expertise, communication skills, ability to listen, wargaming, organizational psychology, humility, natural curiosity
  • Other related disciplines: Data Science, Statistics, Business Analytics, Big Data, etc. – how do these affect the operations research community?

Further Reading / Related Links

Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) Notes – Project Management Processes for a Project (Chapter 3)

Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) Guide 4th Edition
Chapter 3 – Project Management Processes for a Project

Core Definitions

  • Process – A set of interrelated actions and activities performed to achieve a pre-specified product, result, or service. Each process is characterized by its inputs, the tools and techniques that can be applied, and the resulting outputs.
  • Project Management Processes – Ensure the effective flow of the project throughout its existence and encompass the tools and techniques involved in applying the skills and capabilities described in the Knowledge Areas.
  • Product-Oriented Processes – Specify and create the project’s product and are typically defined by the project life cycle and vary by application area.
  • Tailoring – Carefully addressing each process and its constituent inputs and outputs while managing a project.
  • Project Management Process Groups (or just “Process Groups”)
    • Initiating – Those processes performed to define a new project or a new phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization to start the project or phase.
    • Planning – Those processes required to establish the scope of the project, refine the objectives, and define the course of action required to attain the objectives that the project was undertaken to achieve.
    • Executing – Those processes performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to satisfy the project specifications.
    • Monitoring and Controlling – Those processes required to track, review, and regulate the progress and performance of the project; identify any areas in which changes to the plan are required; and initiate the corresponding changes.
    • Closing – Those processes performed to finalize all activities across all Process Groups to formally close the project or phase.
  • “Rolling Wave” Planning – Progressive detailing of the project management plan through iterative, ongoing planning and documentation efforts, usually needed due to significant changes occurring throughout the project life cycle.

Figure 1. Project Management Process Groups & Interaction Flow

General Notes

  • (3.0) In order for a project to be successful, the Project Team must: select appropriate processes required to meet the project objectives; use a defined approach that can be adopted to meet requirements; comply with requirements to meet stakeholder needs and expectations; and balance the competing demands of scope, time, cost, quality, resources, and risk to produce the specified product, service, or result.
  • (3.2) Process Groups are not project phases. As projects are separated into distinct phases or subprojects such as feasibility study, concept development, design, prototype, build, test, etc., all of the Process Groups would normally be repeated for each phase or subproject.
  • (3.3) Involving the customers and other stakeholders during initiation generally improves the probability of shared ownership, deliverable acceptance, and customer and other stakeholder satisfaction.
  • (3.3-3.7) Project Management Processes, by Process Group:
    • (3.3) Initiating Process Group
      • Develop Project Charter
      • Identify Stakeholders
    • (3.4) Planning Process Group
      • Develop Project Management Plan
      • Collect Requirements
      • Define Scope
      • Create Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
      • Define Activities
      • Sequence Activities
      • Estimate Activity Resources
      • Estimate Activity Durations
      • Develop Schedule
      • Estimate Costs
      • Determine Budget
      • Plan Quality
      • Develop Human Resource Plan
      • Plan Communications
      • Plan Risk Management
      • Identify Risks
      • Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis
      • Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis
      • Plan Risk Responses
      • Plan Procurements
    • (3.5) Executing Process Group
      • Direct & Manage Project Execution
      • Perform Quality Assurance
      • Acquire Project Team
      • Develop Project Team
      • Manage Project Team
      • Distribute Information
      • Manage Stakeholder Expectations
      • Conduct Procurements
    • (3.6) Monitoring & Controlling Process Group
      • Monitor & Control Project Work
      • Perform Integrated Change Control
      • Verify Scope
      • Control Scope
      • Control Schedule
      • Control Costs
      • Perform Quality Control
      • Report Performance
      • Monitor & Control Risks
      • Administer Procurements
    • (3.7) Closing Process Group
      • Close Project or Phase
      • Close Procurements

Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) Notes – Project Life Cycle and Organization (Chapter 2)

Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) Guide 4th Edition
Chapter 2 – Project Life Cycle and Organization

Core Definitions

  • Project Life Cycle: A collection of generally sequential and sometimes overlapping project phases whose name and number are determined by the management and control needs of the organization or organizations involved in the project, the nature of the project itself, and its area of application. The project life cycle provides the basic framework for managing a project, regardless of the specific work involved.
  • Project Phases: Divisions within a project where extra control is needed to effectively manage the completion of a major deliverable. Project phases are typically completed sequentially, but can overlap in some situations.
  • Stakeholders: Persons or organizations (e.g. customers, sponsors, the performing organization, the public) who are actively involved in the project or whose interests may be positively or negatively affected by the performance or completion of the project. Stakeholders also may exert influence over the project, its deliverables, and the project team members.
  • Organizational Process Assets: These include any or all process related assets, from any or all of the organizations involved in the project that can be used to influence the project’s success. Organizational process assets can be categorized as either processes and procedures (e.g. SOPs, guidelines, templates) or corporate knowledge base (e.g. measurement databases, project files, lessons learned, configuration management databases, issue management databases, financial databases).

General Notes

  • (2.0) It is important to remember that projects and project management take place in an environment that is broader than that of the project itself.
  • (2.1) Every project has a definite start and a definite end.
  • (2.1.1) Generic life cycle structure: starting the project, organizing and preparing, carrying out the project work, closing the project.
  • (2.1.1) Stakeholder influence, risk, uncertainty, and ability to influence the final characteristics of any/all outputs are high while cost and staffing levels are low at the beginning of the project life cycle.
  • (2.1.2) Project life cycles occur in one or more phases of a product life cycle, and the two can be very much intertwined.
  • ( The three basic types of phase-to-phase relationships are: sequential, overlapping, and iterative.
  • (2.2) Operations work supports the business environment where projects are executed. As a result, there is generally a significant amount of interaction between operations departments and a project team as they work together to achieve project goals.
  • (2.3) Common stakeholders include: customers/users, sponsors, portfolio managers, program managers, the project management office (PMO), project managers, project team, functional managers, operations management, and business partners.

Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) Notes – Introduction (Chapter 1)

Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) Guide 4th Edition
Chapter 1 – Introduction

Core Definitions

  • Project: A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. Projects, within programs or portfolios, are a means of achieving organizational goals and objectives, often in the context of a strategic plan.
  • Project Management: The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.
  • Project Management Office (PMO): An organizational body or entity assigned various responsibilities related to the centralized and coordinated management of those projects under its domain. The responsibilities of a PMO can range from providing project management support functions to actually being responsible for the direct management of a project.
  • Program: A group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually. Projects within a program are related through the common outcome or collective capability.
  • Program Management: The centralized coordinated management of a program to achieve the program’s strategic objectives and benefits. Program management focuses on project interdependencies and helps determine the optimal approach for managing them.
  • Portfolio: A collection of projects or programs and other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic business objectives.
  • Portfolio Management: The centralized management of one or more portfolios, which includes identifying, prioritizing, authorizing, managing, and controlling projects, programs, and other related work, to achieve specific strategic business objectives.
  • Operations: Permanent endeavors that produce repetitive outputs, with resources assigned to do basically the same set of tasks according to the standards institutionalized in a product life cycle.
  • Enterprise Environmental Factors: Both internal and external environmental factors that surround or influence a project’s success, to include, but not limited to: organizational culture, government/industry standards, infrastructure, existing human resources, personnel administration, marketplace conditions, stakeholder risk tolerances, political climate, and PM information systems.

General Notes

  • (1.2) Projects can have social, economic, and environmental impacts that far outlast the projects themselves.
  • (1.5) Projects require project management while operations require business process management (BPM) or operations management.
  • (1.6) Effective project management requires that the project manager (PM) possesses the following characteristics:
    • Knowledge: What the PM knows about project management
    • Performance: What the PM can do when applying project management knowledge
    • Personal: Behavior, attitude, leadership, balance and other core characteristics of the PM
  • (1.8) Enterprise environmental factors are considered inputs to most planning processes.